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1800s

1800: William MacArthur, youngest son of John Macarthur, born in Parramatta. He is educated in Switzerland.

1800: Population of European settlers Australia reaches 5217.

1803: Australia's first newspaper "The Sydney Gazette" publishes basic instructions on viticulture and winemaking translated from French. This causes confusion as the text is not adjusted for the seasons of the southern hemisphere.

1804: A penal settlement is established in the entrance of the Hunter River as a place of secondary punishment: named Kingstown. The Hunter Valley was initially closed to settlers, with the convicts engaged in coal mining and cedar cutting along Hunter, Williams & Paterson Rivers.

1806: Gregory Blaxland established a vineyard on the Parramatta River at Ermington or Eastwood but also has problems with vine disease. He tries several varieties and eventually produces wine.